After reading the first chapter of Foundations of education (Ornstein,Levine, & Gutek, 2011) and watching the video case, I wanted to explore articles and books concerning accountability and high-stakes testing. I found the latter quote to be informative and wanted to share the article.
“There is a relationship among three tiers of accountability: “the individual’s sense of accountability, or responsibility; parents’, teachers’, administrators’, and students’ collective sense of accountability, or expectations; and the organizational rules, incentives, and implementation mechanisms that constitutes the formal accountability system in schools” (pg 4),” (Carnoy, Elmore & Siskin, 2003; as cited in Feuerstein, 2011).
The above quote from The Politics of Accountability and Teacher Preparation (Feuerstein, 20111) identifies a hierarchy of accountability in schools and districts. The term politics is a valid concept that highlights how policy makers shape accountability: NCLB and IDEA. Principals feel a sense of accountability in regard to the achievement of the entire school, while teachers feel a greater sense of responsibility over individual students and whole classrooms. Initial teachers as well as master teacher and administrators perceive and react to accountability differently. Initial teacher feel pressure to prove that they are prepared, knowledgeable and effective, while experienced teachers are pressured to maintain results or continuously improve, while acting as a role model for first year teachers. The term accountability holds individuals responsible for producing tangible results, but is reduced to being centered around high stakes testing. Schools and districts are limited to standardized testing and need to incorporate both formative and summative assessments to measure accountability (Garrison & Ehringhaus, 2007).
Feuerstein, A. (2011). The Politics of Accountability and Teacher Preparation. Action In Teacher Education, 33(1), 3-23.
Garrison, C., & Ehringhaus, M. (2007). Formative and summative assessments in the classroom.Retrieved from http://www.amle.org/Publications/WebExclusive/Assessment/tabid/1120/Default.aspx
Ornstein, A.C., Levine, D.U. & Gutek, G.L. (2011). Foundations of education. (11th ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.